Backyard Habitat

Don’t Get Ticked

by cathym on May 13, 2019

by Lyn Chimera

Appearance and relative sizes of adult male and female, nymph, and larval ticks (Ixodes scapularis). Photo courtesy U.S. federal government Center for Disease Control (CDC)

I recently attended “Don’t Get Ticked,” an informational program about ticks, conducted by Lynn Braband, who heads the NYSIPM (Integrated Pest Management) program at Cornell. He covered the myths and facts. It was fascinating and scary at the same time. I for one don’t take tick protection seriously enough, but will from now on. Lyme is now the most common vector-borne disease in the U. S., so it needs to be taken seriously.

Ticks have eight legs, so are not insects but related to spiders and mites. There are three types of ticks in our area:

The American dog tick, which carries Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and prefers grasslands.

The black legged tick (deer tick), which carries Lyme disease and prefers woods and wood edges.

The Lone Star tick, which arrives on migrating birds as our climate warms and prefers dry areas.

All these ticks spread a variety of diseases, but it is only the deer tick that carries Lyme.

Ticks hitch a ride on people and animals through an “ambush” technique. They can’t jump, fly or drop from trees so they rely on grabbing on as you pass by. A tick will crawl to the end of a leaf or blade of grass from ground level to one-and-a-half feet, hold on with their back legs, and reach forward with their front two elongated legs to grab a hold on whatever passes by. 

Walking in the middle of paths so you don’t brush up against vegetation is a good way to avoid these hitch-hikers. Tucking long pants into socks is another good method. DEET is the most effective tick pesticide. Braband suggests putting all clothing in a dryer on high as soon as you come in. The heat will kill the ticks. He also recommends taking a shower within half an hour of coming in. This can possibly wash off ticks as well as give you the opportunity to check yourself.

If you do get a tick on you the most important thing about removing it is NOT to squeeze the body or head. That just forces more of their fluids into you. Use very thin tweezers and place them between the head and your skin. Pull gently. There is also a tick removal device available at drugstores. If you want to check the tick for Lyme disease, put in a container in the freezer or drop it in a container with alcohol or hand sanitizer to kill it. Then take the tick to your doctor or the county health department.

SOME INTERESTING FACTS

  • Deer are an important location for ticks to reproduce, however they don’t carry Lyme Disease.
  • June and July are the highest months for tick activity. Although they can be active all year long, any day it’s above 40 degrees.
  • Tick larvae don’t initially have Lyme. They have to take a blood meal on an infected host like a deer mouse.
  • Deer mice are not the only host animals. Chipmunks, squirrels and other small mammals can be the vectors. 
  • Most ticks have a two-year life cycle.
  • Wearing light colored clothes makes ticks easier to spot.
  • A tick does NOT have to be on you for 36 hours for you to become infected, however the longer it’s on you the higher your chance is of getting Lyme.
  •  Ticks inject a numbing agent so you can’t feel them bite.
  • To check if you have ticks in your yard, drag a two-by-three-foot piece of white flannel or corduroy across the area, then check it for ticks.

An interesting panel discussion and Q&A followed the presentation. The overall impression I was left with was you have to be your own advocate. Dress properly, use protection, avoid potential tick habitat and check yourself daily. Many doctors are not up on Lyme disease symptoms, which can vary, so you have to be perseverant if you suddenly become ill.

An outstanding website with all the information on ticks, their life cycle, and bite prevention is nysipm.cornell.edu/whats-bugging-you/ticks/.

For a Claymation video on ticks go to dontgettickedny.org.

Lyn Chimera is an Erie County Master Gardener. 

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Prepping for Winter

by cathym on November 26, 2018

by Liz Magnanti

Vincetoxicum rossicum, pale swallowwort (dogstrangling vine) at the Skaneateles Conservation Area, Onondaga County, New York. Photo by R. A. Nonenmacher

Fall cleanup is an inevitable part of preparing for the winter months ahead. Raking, cleaning out the gutters, and cleaning up plant debris can be tedious. The good news is, sometimes the messier the garden the better it is for wildlife!

Many plants will offer seeds to birds like goldfinches, juncos, and pine siskins in the winter. Black-eyed Susan and purple coneflower are great examples that can be left all winter for birds to feed from. There is no need to deadhead or remove stalks of these plants now—it can wait until the spring. If you are cleaning out dead plant stalks in your garden, be on the lookout for the chrysalis of butterflies and the cocoons of moths. Swallowtails are one example of a butterfly that will spend all winter in their chrysalis. Other species like the Mourning Cloak butterfly will spend the winter as an adult and will hibernate in tree crevices or brush piles. On an unseasonably warm winter day you may even see some of these butterflies flying over your snowcovered garden.

Weeding out perennial invasives that are popping up in the garden is a good idea in the fall so their root system doesn’t expand more than it already has. Black swallowwort is a plant that is creeping into gardens at an alarming rate. It can easily take over gardens in a small amount of time due to its excellent seed dispersal and subterranean rhizome system. It looks like a vine, can wrap itself around other plants, and has slender seed pods similar to other milkweed species. Digging out this and other unwanted plants will make spring gardening easier. Also known as “dog strangling vine,’ this beast is harmful to our Monarch population.

Now is a good time to collect seeds from plants you want to propagate. Read up on the plant species because some, like milkweeds and cardinal flower, sprout better with cold stratification—this means they need to be left out in the cold in order to sprout. This can also be accomplished by keeping the seeds in the refrigerator for two to three months.

Sticks and branches cleaned up from the yard can be saved and arranged to make a brush pile. Brush piles are places for small mammals, birds and amphibians to take refuge. Hawks commonly come into yards in the winter to search for an easy meal and having a brush pile will give their potential prey a place to escape. You can add leaves and grasses to your brush pile to provide even more protection and places to hide.

Putting up a roosting house, or roosting pockets, is another way to give birds protection in the winter. A roosting house looks like a bird house but it has perches along the inside of it. These perches allow for several birds to occupy the space at once. Multiple species, even birds that don’t nest in houses, will use these roosting houses to stay out of the snow, rain, and wind. They are usually made of woven plant fibers or coconut shells. Birdhouses can also be left out in the winter. Birds or even mice will use them for protection as the weather turns.

Once the temperature drops you may see more activity at your bird feeders. This time of year it is important to make sure your feeders are clean and the seed you are feeding them is fresh. Birds are warm blooded and need to consume many calories in order to keep their body temperature up. Peanuts, sunflower, nyjer, and safflower seeds are high in fat and are a great source of food for birds in the winter. Peanuts tend to attract chickadees, titmice, nuthatches, woodpeckers and blue jays. Sunflower and safflower seeds will attract cardinals, finches, sparrows, and more. Nyjer seed is a favorite of finches, especially goldfinches. Goldfinches are in the area all winter long, but they molt their feathers and will be a drab olive color. In the winter it is common to see pine siskins and sometimes redpolls at nyjer feeders. These birds migrate here from Northern Canada for the winter. Suet cakes, which are blocks of fat, are especially attractive to woodpeckers.

Water can be hard to come by for wildlife in winter. Many species of birds and small mammals depend on a shallow, unfrozen sources of water to drink and bathe in. You can provide this in your yard by using a heated birdbath or by putting a heater in an existing birdbath. These heaters operate on a thermostat and don’t make the water warm, but they keep it unfrozen.

Providing wildlife with food, water, and shelter from the elements and predators is important all year if you want to have a wildlife-friendly yard. You may find, however, when you provide these elements in the winter the amount of animals you see goes up significantly. When we have long periods of cold and snow cover, it can be hard for wildlife to find a meal, a drink, or safety. Now is the perfect time to prep your yard for the cold months ahead. The animals will appreciate the additional help, and you will appreciate their wonderful presence in your yard all winter long.

 

Liz Magnanti is the manager of the Bird House in Pittsford.

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Birds and Summer Perennials

by cathym on September 9, 2018

by Liz Magnanti; photos by Jane Milliman

The approaching fall brings with it that magical time when garden centers put their perennials on sale! Now is a great time to get a head start on your garden for next year. Planting in the fall gives the plants a chance to get their root systems growing and can make for more successful growth the next year. Here are some of my favorite flowering plants that are both beautiful and will attract birds and butterflies.

Cardinal flower

Cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis)
This plant attracts hummingbirds to it like no other plant or feeder I have in the garden. It has one- to three-foot-tall spikes of beautiful scarlet flowers that are a fantastic source of nectar. It thrives in wet conditions but will also do well in an average garden setting. The plant doesn’t live long, but because it self-sows it will reseed itself each year.

Joe Pye weed

Joe Pye weed (Eupatorium spp.)
I have always had success with Joe Pye weed no matter where I plant it. It thrives in sunny locations but will bloom even in shade. The plant can grow tall after several years—sometimes up to eight feet! Joe Pye is a wonderful source of nectar for bees and butterflies, and juncos and finches will eat its seeds over the winter. I suggest planting this in a place in the garden that has been unsuccessful in growing other plants. Just make sure to prepare for how tall it can get.

Coneflower

Coneflower (Echinacea spp.)
Coneflower is great because you can find it everywhere. There are many varieties in pink, purple, white, yellow, and orange—some tall, some short. There is a type of coneflower for any empty sunny spot you are looking to fill. The flower provides nectar for butterflies, especially monarchs, silver-spotted skippers, and swallowtails. When it goes to seed it’s a treat for goldfinches all winter long.

Milkweed

Milkweed (Asclepias spp.)
The milkweed plant is essential to the development of the monarch butterfly. The female monarch lays her eggs on the plant and, once those eggs hatch, the caterpillars are leaf-eating machines. The flowers milkweed produces contain nectar that feeds butterflies as well as bees and other pollinators. My favorite milkweed is the orange variety called butterfly weed. (Asclepias tuberosa.) Swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata) is the other variety you will most often find in garden centers. This species can be pink, purple, or white in color. The common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) that is usually found in fields is great in large gardens, but can easily overtake other plants in a small one. Milkweed is easy to grow from seed. It has large, showy seed pods that can be collected once the pods  become dry and begin to split.

New England aster

New England aster (Symphyotrichum novae-angliae)
When gardening for pollinators it is important to plant a variety of flowers that will bloom throughout the season. Asters are small, fall-blooming flowers that tend to flower during the time many birds are migrating. Hummingbirds will sip from its flowers as they make their way down south for the winter. Butterflies such as the clouded sulphur, painted lady, and red admiral will also drink its nectar. Chickadees and finches will eat aster seeds throughout the winter.

Sedum

Sedum (Sedum spp.)
Sedums like ‘Autumn Joy’ are another type of plant that blooms late in the season, giving honeybees and other insects a source of pollen and nectar at the end of the summer and fall. Wild stonecrop (Sedum ternatum) is a shade-tolerant species that makes a great ground cover in the garden. This variety blooms in April to May. It makes a wonderful garden edge and will grow in rock gardens.

Bee balm

Bee balm (Monarda spp.)
Bee balm is one of my favorites for a few reasons. It is an herb that has a great smell and can be used in cooking! Even better, its blooms attract hummingbirds and seem to be a favorite flower of the hummingbird clearwing moth. This day-flying moth gets its name from looking strikingly similar to the hummingbird and having very similar flying and feeding behaviors!

Butterfly bush

Butterfly Bush (Buddleia spp.)
Although not native, the butterfly bush is like a magnet to butterflies. I have yet to find another nectar-producing plant that comes close to attracting butterflies to the garden. This plant is very hardy and can even beplanted in containers. Many different colors are available, including some that are tri-color or rainbow. The leaves of the plant won’t offer nutrition to caterpillars, but the flowers attract enough butterflies to make up for that.

All of the plants listed here, with the exception of the butterfly bush, are natives. Not only is this good for our local wildlife, but it also means they often require less maintenance. Once established, these plants will need very little extra attention, be it watering or fertilizing. The next few weeks are a perfect time to fill in any holes you have in your garden, and you should be able to get perennials at a great deal! Take advantage of it and you will thank yourself come spring!

Liz Magnanti is the manager of the Bird House in Brighton.

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