Carol Ann Harlos

Rhododendron

THE GARDEN
We gardeners have been waiting for spring. However, during May, PATIENCE is the rule. A common problem is planting too soon. If the soil is too cold or wet seeds may rot and roots may stop growing. 

Soil temperature should be above 50 F. If soil feels cold in your hand, it’s too cold for plants! Try making a ball with a handful of soil. Does it crumble? Great. Does it form a ball? It’s too wet.

Purchase compact, healthy plants with unopened buds that are appropriate for your gardens. Read plant tags and note the final height and width. Are they appropriate for your space? Mix compost, or other organic materials into the soil before planting. Mulch lightly around the new plants.

Planting holes should be a deep as the root mass and twice as wide. Be sure to spread or “spider” the roots to encourage root growth into the soil instead of circling, self-strangling roots which can lead to disaster.

Leave bulb foliage intact until it yellows and wilts, but remove spent flowers to prevent seed formation. The foliage is required to give bulbs the food necessary to form next year’s blooms. Spring bulbs can be moved or divided as soon as the foliage dies. Do the same for bearded irises so the energy goes into the rhizomes. Divide Virginia bluebells, bloodroot, trilliums, and other spring ephemerals when the leaves turn yellow and before they disappear from sight. 

Weeding never ends. Mulching helps. Plant warm-season annuals by mid-June, before it gets too hot for them to establish good roots. These include cosmos, marigolds, begonias, torenias, petunias, ageratum, and cleome.

Check for signs of insects (chewed leaves, puncture wounds, sticky substances, trails in leaves) or disease (yellow leaves, stunted growth, signs of fungi). Be sure to look on both sides of the leaves before buying any plant. Don’t forget to check for healthy roots. Slug control can start as soon as you can get into the garden. Take a look on top and under the leaves of tomato, potato, pepper, and eggplants for hornworm eggs (only one-tenth of an inch in diameter). Yellow trails in columbine leaves are caused by leaf miners, the larva of a genus of fly. This is more of an aesthetic problem … you don’t have to do anything OR you can remove the affected leaves.

Buy yourself at least one new plant! Consider some native plant species to help pollinators and to feed young birds. Keep newly planted trees, shrubs, vegetables, perennials, and flowers well-watered (about one inch per week.)

Try deer repellants or consider deer resistant plants. Check the Cornell website for a great deer resistant plant list. 

Cut back spring-flowering perennials such as pulmonaria and perennial geraniums after they bloom to encourage reblooming and/or growth of new foliage. Deadhead perennials and annuals to prevent seed formation and to encourage new growth and more flowers.

At the end of June, cut back perennials such as phlox, beebalm, sedum, aster, and goldenrod by one-third to one-half to control height or delay flowering. This is known as the Chelsea Chop.

Place supports over taller flowering plants so the plants can grow up through them without damage to foliage and flowers later in the season.

Spring-blooming shrubs like weigela, forsythias, and spirea can be pruned back after blooming. Cut about one-third of the oldest stems to the ground for renovation.

If growing azaleas and/or rhododendrons in higher pH soil be sure to add acidifying agents. However, don’t disturb the roots.

THE LAWN
Mow lawn at least three inches high. This encourages deeper, healthier root growth. Leave grass clippings on the lawn to return nutrients to the soil.

The first application of lawn fertilizer, if needed, can be put down around Memorial Day. If fertilizer was applied in the fall a spring application is not necessary. A quarter to a half inch top dressing of compost adds nutrients, feeds soil microbes, and improves the water-holding capacity of the soil. 

For optimal pre-emergent crabgrass control, do not apply until soil is close to 60 degrees. Crabgrass doesn’t germinate until the soil temperature 2 inches deep is between 60 & 64 degrees. Applying when the ground is too cold is a waste of money and chemicals.

VEGETABLES
Check the Cornell recommended vegetable list for suggested and disease resistant varieties. vegvariety.cce.cornell.edu

Plant your brassicas now: broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and summer cabbage. Reseed bush beans every few weeks to increase production.

Plant your tomatoes, eggplant, squash, pumpkins, cucumbers, and peppers when the ground is warm to promote root growth. Usually this time comes closer to the end of May.

After direct-sowing seeds, be sure to thin the seedlings to prevent crowding and competition for light, water, and fertilizer. If plants were grown from seed be sure to harden them off before planting them in the garden.

—Carol Ann Harlos and Lyn Chimera, Master Gardeners, Erie County


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by Michelle Sutton

Carol Ann Harlos and Lyn Chimera have been frequent almanac co-writers in Upstate Gardeners’ Journal since 2008. Each lives in Erie County.

“The lupines are a mixture of some I grew indoors from seed anad two I received as presents. Baby lupines are adorable! I was afraid I would step on them or weed them out, so I put metal cloches over them until they got bigger. I know they are a short-lived perennial, so one day I will have to repeat the process.” Photo by Carol Ann Harlos

Did you grow up gardening with family? If not, when did it grab you?

Harlos: I had no interest in gardening when I was growing up. However, when I majored in in biology in college, that opened my eyes to the plant world. I taught biology for five years before taking time off for my children. That’s when the gardening bug really got hold of me. I did projects with our three daughters, growing vegetables, herbs, and flowers. I was hooked!

Chimera: My family had two conservation farms growing up, so I developed an appreciation for nature, which led to my interest in native plants. Our family gardening was planting trees and putting in ponds for wildlife, although we always had a few tomato plants and my mother loved her small perennial garden. Gardening really grabbed me when I was married and had a place of my own. I was struggling to be successful and learning through my mistakes as we all do.

How did you meet each other and become co-writers of the UGJ almanac?

Chimera: Carol Ann was my mentor when I first became a Master Gardener in 2005. We were Hotline partners; I learned so much from her and still do. We share a love of nature, insects, and learning. She also encouraged me to write, which I had always wanted to do but was afraid to try. For the almanac, generally I do a draft and then Carol Ann adds to it and we work it out together over email.

Cinnamon fern (Osmundastrum cinnamomeum) in Chimera’s garden. Photo by Lyn Chimera

How has UGJ influenced you over the years?

Harlos: I’ve been reading UGJ for a long time. I frequently take copies of the magazine with me when I give talks because the information is timely, entertaining, and informative.

Chimera: Like many people, I picked up the first issue free at some gardening event. I was impressed with the quality of the information and the fact that it was local. It was the first garden magazine I subscribed to and honestly I can’t even remember how long ago it was. Over the years I have learned to rely on it to keep abreast of what is happening in our region.

What other publications do you write for?

Harlos: I write a monthly column for Forever Young, which is Western New York’s oldest and only full-color senior publication, with both print (40,000 copies a month) and online editions. [You can see several dozen of Carol Ann’s Forever Young columns by searching her name at buffalospree.com.] I’m also a frequent contributor to The Herbarist and The Essential Herbal magazines; Iwrite a monthly newsletter for Herb Gardeners of the Niagara Frontier; and I’m the editor and a writer for the monthly Erie County Master Gardener News. One of these days I hope to compile my writings into a book.

Chimera: In addition to UGJ, I write for After 50, Figure 8 (the Federated Garden Club publication), the Erie County Master Gardener News, and monthly garden tips for clients and people on my mailing list.

Snapshot from Chimera’s garden. Photo by Lyn Chimera

Apart from writing, what do you enjoy doing most?

Harlos: I love, love to teach! I am a backyard beekeeper and do many talks on bees as well as herbs, insects, plant diseases, autumn gardening, bulbs, downsizing the garden, living with deer, garden botany, garden Rx, garden ideas for the classroom, houseplants, hydrangeas, making more plants, pollinator gardens, and tillandsias. I love giving talks (not lectures!) because there is so much joy interacting with people. I have a great time and so do my audiences. I go anywhere I am asked because it is so much fun. I have given talks out-of-state several times.

Chimera: After retiring from teaching I became a Master Gardener (MG). Working the Hotline was and still is my favorite part of being an MG. In doing that, I saw how many people had garden-related questions and just needed some guidance, so I started a garden consulting business called Lessons from Nature (lessonsfromnature.biz). Basically, I make house calls and coach folks on everything from groundcover and weed ID to pruning, always stressing an ecological approach … helping people realize gardening is a natural process, not a battle.

Another part of my business is giving presentations to groups, which I love. Once a teacher always a teacher. I specialize in native plants and ecological and sustainable approaches to gardening but have more than twenty topics and am always developing new ones based on requests. I also teach for MG programs and present at Plantasia and other gardening events, usually within the WNY area.

In your own gardens, what are your passions and priorities?

Harlos: I am a generalist. I want to grow everything, so I end up planting vegetables in between perennials and annuals. I love working in the garden and hearing and seeing honeybees (which I swear are mine) and other pollinators buzzing about and going from flower to flower. I also feed birds (nine feeders).

Chimera: My goal in gardening is always supporting nature. I have more than 100 varieties of native plants in my little half-acre village lot. However, I have many nonnatives that are productive as well, so I’m not a total natives snob. Not using pesticides or herbicides is one of the best and easiest ways we can help nature. My gardens have been chemical-free for about twenty-five years—and the results are amazing.

What are your favorite horticulture resources?  

Harlos: I favor the writings of Sally Cunningham, who taught me and encouraged me to give talks. I love A Garden of Marvels by Ruth Kassinger, The Secret Life of Plants by Tompkins and Bird, and Fruit Key and Twig Key to Trees and Shrubs by William Harlow, my go-to book for identification since college.

Chimera: Bringing Nature Home by Doug Tallamy was a real eye-opener for me as to the importance of planting to support beneficial insects, the basis of the food chain for birds and other creatures.

Another favorite is The Hidden Life of Trees by Peter Wohlleben. You will never look at a tree in the same way again after reading this book.

Harlos’s garden in the fall, including fruitful crabapple tree in background, rose bush, pineapple sage, dahlias, papyrus, and more. Photo by Carol Ann Harlos

Who are your favorite local, regional, national, or international horticulture personalities?

Harlos: Sally Cunningham, Jane L. Taylor, Eleanor Perenyi, Fredrick Law Olmsted, and Tracy DiSabato-Aust.

Chimera: Locally, Sally Cunningham has been a mentor and does so much to educate the public about gardening and good horticultural practices. On a national level, Doug Tallamy is always wonderful.

Anything else you’d like to share?

Harlos: I also love growing indoor plants, plant propagation, seed starting, growing orchids (I have only fifteen to date), and hydroponics (aerogardens).

Chimera: I have enjoyed writing the almanac for UGJ. It keeps me on my toes and makes me more aware of what I should be doing when.

Michelle Sutton is a horticulturist, writer, and editor.

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Almanac: September–October 2019

by cathym on September 4, 2019

First please take the time to enjoy the sights, sounds and smells of autumn. This is a special time not to be missed. Now to work!

Don’t cut back grasses until spring.
Don’t cut back grasses until spring.

GARDEN MAINTENANCE
Fall is an ideal time to weed. This prevents both perennial and annual weeds from getting a head start in the spring. No time to weed? Cut off and discard the seed heads.

Watering trees and shrubs is as important as watering perennials, especially anything planted this season. They need to be well hydrated going into the winter. Keep all plants watered if it doesn’t rain at least an inch per week.

Allow annuals such as nicotiana, annual poppies, cleome, and Verbena bonariensis to drop seeds in the garden, unless you don’t like them!

Prevent mouse and rabbit damage to thin-barked trees and shrubs by installing a hardware cloth barrier that extends at least two feet above the anticipated snow depth. Cut any grass around the base of trees short to discourage nesting by these critters.

Add compost to your beds to improve soil texture and promote beneficial microbes to prepare the garden for next spring. If you have a compost pile, turn it. 

Late winter is the better time to prune trees and shrubs. Fall pruning cuts may not heal as they enter dormancy.

PERENNIALS
Move, divide, and share your oversized perennials so you can have one less thing to do next spring. Do this in early fall so the plants can establish roots. This is a good time as energy can go into root production rather than flower production. 

Remove and discard all diseased plant material. Do not place in a compost pile as some fungal spores can winter-over in ground litter and may re-infect plants. Disinfect your pruners after each cut when pruning diseased plants. Spray pruner blades with Lysol, dip in a 10 percent bleach solution, or use alcohol wipes.

Remove and destroy iris foliage to eliminate the eggs of the iris borer.

Mound soil around your roses when the temperature drops. Bring in fresh soil to avoid disturbing roots. 

Leave the seedheads of astilbe, black-eyed Susan, coneflower, daisy, etc. intact to provide food and shelter for wildlife as well as giving winter interest.

Don’t cut back grasses and plants such as red osier dogwood; they add to the beauty of the winter garden. 

BULBS, TUBERS, AND CORMS
Purchase spring bulbs that are unblemished and large for their species. The presence of blue-green mold is not a problem unless it penetrates into the bulb itself.

Choose bulbs like daffodils that perennialize to save both time and money.

Begin planting spring bulbs. You will get better results if you plant when there is a month of 40 degree or above soil temperature (mid-September to mid-October in our area). This allows the bulbs to set strong roots and will give you better blooming.

With some bulbs it’s difficult to tell the top from the bottom. The skin is loose at the top and attached at the bottom. If you can’t tell, plant them sideways

To deter moles, voles and squirrels, put a layer of pea gravel or small-gauge chicken wire between the bulbs and soil surface.

Plant bulbs two to three times as deep as their height and a little deeper for naturalizing varieties.

Dig and store summer blooming tubers such as caladium and elephant ears before frost and tuberous begonias, cannas, and dahlias after foliage is blackened by frost. 

LAWN
September is the best time to fertilize your lawn and seed a new one. A top dressing of good compost is an ideal natural fertilizer. Overseeding bare spots helps prevent weeds in those areas the following year.

Remember to water the grass seeds regularly to keep the soil moist and choose high quality seed appropriate for your site.

In early September check your lawn for grubs by lifting up about a square foot of sod. If there are more than 10 to12 grubs per square foot you may want to treat for grubs. First identify what type of grub you have so you know the proper treatment. Complete your grub control program by the middle of September. Contact your Cooperative Extension for help in identification and treatment options.

Keep mowing the lawn. Make the last cutting one inch lower than usual to prevent matting and to discourage snow mold.

If the leaves aren’t too thick on your lawn leave them there when you mow; those mulched leaves feed your lawn naturally.

FRUITS, VEGETABLES, AND HERBS
Any time after the first frost through late October is a good time to plant garlic.

Pot up some parsley, chives, oregano, or mints to use indoors. You can also freeze or dry herbs for winter use. Be sure to wash off the plants. 

Pick off the tomato blossoms that won’t have time to develop so the nutrients go into the tomatoes already growing on the vine.

Plant cover crops such as peas or clover as you harvest your vegetables. This will reduce the need for weeding and will add nitrogen to the soil. Another option is to sow a cover crop such as rye or winter wheat in the vegetable garden. Turn it over in the spring.

Dig mature onions on a dry day. Store in well ventilated mesh bags or panty hose.
Plant radish, kale, spinach, and lettuce seeds in early September as your last crops. Extend the season with floating row covers or cold frames.
Pull up hot pepper plants and hang them until the peppers are dry. 

If you had any vegetables with fungal problems, make sure that area is cleaned of all plant debris and avoid planting the same variety in the same spot next year.

Mulch asparagus and strawberries.

MISCELLANEOUS
Bring in tender perennials such as scented geraniums and rosemary and any annuals you want to overwinter before you turn on the furnace. This cuts down on the shock of moving inside. 

To start annuals for next season, take cuttings from scented geraniums, begonias, strobilanthes, and coleus in early September while the plants are in their prime.

Collect seeds from open pollinated plants such as kiss-me-over-the-garden-gate, Big Max pumpkin, and Brandywine tomatoes. If collecting seeds, be sure to keep them dry and chilled at 35 to 45 degrees.

Plant trees and shrubs now. They will have time to develop roots before winter sets in.

Fallen leaves are one of the most wasted natural resources the home gardener has. They can be chopped and used as a mulch to improve soil texture and to add nutrients. (Get some from your neighbors as well.) 

Small leaves like linden or birch trees can be spread on gardens directly. Larger leaves can be shredded or run over with your lawn mower before spreading. Avoid using black walnut or butternut as they can be toxic to many plants. Excess leaves can be composted for use next spring. They decompose faster if shredded first.

Begin bringing in houseplants that lived outdoors all summer. Wash off with a good spray of soapy water. Check for diseases and insects before bringing inside.

Lay out thick layers of cardboard or newspaper over areas that will become new beds in the spring and cover with mulch or compost. This will kill grasses and/or weeds as they break down making spring efforts easier. This is also a good method of controlling large masses of weeds.

Take pictures of your gardens. Make notes for next year’s gardens now. What worked, what didn’t, what to add, remove, or move etc. (You may think you will remember next year but you probably won’t.)

—Carol Ann Harlos and Lyn Chimera, Erie County Master Gardeners

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