November-December 2013

NOVEMBER
This is your last chance to make maps of your plantings and take notes about what needs to be moved/divided/replaced next year. If you are a risk-taker, or live in the milder areas, you can still plant a few hardier perennials or woodies, early in the month. Although the usual recommendation is to mulch after the soil freezes, I mulch plants right after planting to allow more root growth before the soil cools off too much.
Save your leaves and consider collecting leaf bags from your neighbors! I have a special compost bin for leaves. I leave them in the bags (plastic preferred) until the leaves turn into “leaf mould”, which is my main organic soil amendment. Most leaves are wet enough and ‘dirty’ enough that they will compost right inside the bag. Any bags that are really light contain dry leaves, and these I set aside for use as mulch in the veggie garden the next season.
Clean up all the old plants and debris from the vegetable garden. Although most recommendations are to dispose of this debris in the trash, I have too much to do that. Instead, I put it in a long-term inactive compost pile, so I’m isolating diseases and pests that the debris may hold. It’s probably too late to plant a cover crop in the veggie garden in most areas. I try to sheet-compost there instead (flattened cardboard covered by leaves).
Time to finish planting your bulbs outside! Look for sales at nurseries and garden centers, too. You can also start potting up the hardy spring-flowering bulbs you want to force (you can finish this task in December). Be sure to protect potted crocus and tulips from mice if your garage is not mouse-proof. (Are any of them mouse-proof??)
Now is a good time to clean up around your perennials and shrubs. Cut down dead stalks (except for mums, Japanese painted ferns, Kniphofia, and semi-woody plants like lavender, sage, Russian sage, and butterfly bush, which overwinter better with the protection of the old stalks). Pull those winter annual weeds that have sprouted! If you see little clumps of circular white objects resembling tapioca, those are snail or slug eggs. Get rid of them (not in the compost). I apply more mulch where necessary; this is my best opportunity because my flower beds are full of bulb foliage by early spring.
Consider using anti-desiccant sprays especially on young evergreens, or installing a burlap screen to keep the winter wind and sun from drying out the foliage. If it’s been dry, give this year’s new plantings a last drink, especially evergreens.
Pick up fallen fruit and bury it in a long-term compost pile, so that disease organisms aren’t wintering over under your plants. Applying fresh mulch will help isolate disease organisms. Be sure to protect fruit tree trunks up to 4 or 5 ft. above the ground, from nibbling wildlife.
Protect vulnerable plants from deer, rabbit, and rodent damage – with fencing, hardware cloth, plastic tree protectors, and/or repellents.
DECEMBER
For disease prevention, I prefer to prune in late winter or early spring when woody plants are about to resume growth – but we all make an exception for holly that can be used in holiday decorating. Consider cutting off the fronds of Christmas ferns and the leaves of hybrid Lenten hellebores and using them as well. For many of us, they are battered eyesores by March anyway.
It’s time to finish potting up the hardy bulbs you are forcing this winter. For a 2-page factsheet on forcing hardy bulbs, and what to do with them later, e-mail Pat Curran at pc21@cornell.edu
This is also a good time to clean up gardening tools and organize the toolshed before it gets too cold. If you just disconnected the hoses earlier in the fall, gather them up now and store them out of the sun.
Houseplants near windows are mostly in semi-dormancy. Don’t fertilize and don’t overwater, but do look out for scale and other insect problems. Be sure not to leave them too close to window glass, where it can get a lot colder than you think. Try fluorescent lights and your African violets will probably bloom.
—Pat Curran, Tompkins County Cornell Cooperative Extension Master Gardeners Program

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2013 Winter Photo Contest Winners

by janem on November 13, 2013

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Grand prize

Untitled

by Mary Shelsby

Prize: A $50 gift certificate from Wayside Garden Center, where you can get anything from large-caliper trees to the new rage in houseplants, kokedama.

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Winner: Scenes category

Untitled, University of Rochester campus

By Corinna Vannozzi

Prize: a $35 gift certificate to the Asa Ransom House Country Inn in Clarence, a B&B that also serves up elegant dinners.

Last Season's "Purple Peacock" Broccoli

Winner: Plants category (cover, bottom center)

“Last Season’s ‘Purple Peacock’ Broccoli”

By Kimberly Burkard

Prize: $35 gift certificate to Higbie Farm Supply in North Chili, which has an amazing birding department and great garden accessories.

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Winner: Enhanced category (cover, bottom right)

“The Outlet Swing Bridge at Lake Ontario and Irondequoit Bay”

By Lora Ann Rothfuss

Prize: Four tickets to Sonnenberg Gardens & Mansion Historic Park in Canandaigua, a wonderful destination for touring formal and themed gardens, lunch, and the largest selection of New York State wines we’ve seen.

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Winner: Facebook’s most popular (this page)

Untitled, Wheatland

By Elizabeth Harness Murphy

Prize: a $35 gift certificate for QB Daylily Gardens in Caledonia, with over 1300 registered varieties of hemerocallis on display and over 700 for sale.

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Winter Sowing, a Gardener’s Winter Delight

by janem on November 13, 2013

By Trudi Davidoff

About ten years ago, I began sowing seeds outdoors in winter as a practical solution to a problem I had, which was lots of seeds and no place to sow them. An avid seed trader, I visited seed trading forums and exchanged open-pollinated seed saved from my own garden for other people’s offerings. Seed traders are often generous folk and send an extra bonus packet or two along with what’s been agreed upon, and in a few months’ time I had enough accumulated to fill a popcorn tin. There were annuals and perennials, shrub seed, grasses, vines, veggies and herbs too. It was wonderful, except that I live in a cottage and don’t have room for an indoor light set-up, and the cat owns the windowsills so there can be no trays of soil and sprouting seeds there to be warmed by streaming sunlight.

Then one day I was out on my patio just about stomping my feet in frustration when I had a thought: Mother Nature sows her seeds outside in winter, and I could do the same. But I also knew that direct sowing had iffy results because the seeds could be eaten by birds, bugs and critters, wash out in a storm or dry up and fail to sprout.  I could sow the seed into containers instead of direct sowing. I was a new homeowner then and like any new homeowner I didn’t have two nickels to rub together, so I could not afford new nice special sowing containers. I was going to have to rough it and scrounge and make do with what I had on hand, which was lots of recyclable kitchen containers in my green bin.  I would make my sowing containers from milk jugs, takeout containers, soda bottles, or plastic clamshells that held salad or cookies; I could be imaginative, creative, save some bucks because I’m not buying the containers, and experience that good feeling of getting a second use out of something that was being taken to the curb for collection.

Here’s how it works: Seeds are sown into vented containers that are placed outside in winter; they will experience everything that seed sown naturally, dropped from plants or blown in on the breeze, will experience. They get rain, snow, sleet, wind, hail and lots of sunshine too. But these seeds are protected from the environment. The lids shield them from downpours that could dislodge them and the vented lids let in some rain or melting snow to keep the soil moist and just as important—they allow air that has been warmed by the sun to escape. Winter sowing containers are like mini-greenhouses or cold frames.

Here we are working with seeds from temperate climates—regions with distinct different seasons—spring, summer, autumn and winter. The method does not work with plants from tropical regions that are steadily warm or hot.  It’s easy to choose what to sow: Often a common plant name will include an environment or climate from the natural world—these are all good plants for winter sowing. Some names include brook, canyon, field, lake, meadow, mountain, plains, prairie, river, valley, etc. Some examples are: bog laurel, queen of the meadow, streambank fleabane, marsh mallow, mountain larkspur, plains coreopsis, prairie clover, and river birch. Some names might include locations from temperate climates like: alpine, American, Canadian, Chinese, polar, and Siberian. Some examples are: Arctic daisy, alpine aster, American star thistle, Chinese wisteria, German iris, Japanese maple, Oriental lily, polar willow and Russian olive. Seed packets, catalogs and websites often include plant habit and germination advice—words to look for indicating a variety could be good for winter sowing might include: Pre-chilling—freeze, refrigerate or stratify for any amount of days, will colonize, self-sows, reseeds, sow outdoors in late autumn, sow outdoors in early spring while nights are still cool, sow outdoors in early spring will frosts may still occur, hardy seeds, seedlings can withstand frost, can be direct sown early, wildflower or weed; the plant name itself could contain weed, such as butterfly weed, Joe Pye weed or jewel weed.  Take a walk around your own garden and neighborhood, visit a local botanical garden and see what plants seem to be reseeding in the wilder unkempt areas. If a plant reseeds in your garden then you can try that species with winter sowing. Plants that reseed in wild areas as well as regional wildflowers are all good choices.

For flats I like to choose containers that will hold at least three inches of soil in their base, as shallower containers can dry out too quickly from strong sun or breezy days.  My favorite flats are foil take-out pans with clear plastic lids, whipped topping containers, two-liter soda bottles and clear or translucent gallon jugs that held milk, juice or water.  I’ll mention at this time that I choose to sow all my veggie and herb seeds in containers that already held food—I know that this material is safe for food; I don’t want concerns about toxins from unsafe plastics leaching into the container soil and being taken up by the roots of the seedlings. For ornamental plants that won’t be eaten I am not so worried and will sow seed in whatever is on hand that I can make into a container.

When preparing a foil base container I wash it well in hot soapy water and rinse well. I take a small paring knife and pierce the corners near the base to make some drainage slits. All containers need drainage or seeds can sit in muddy soil and rot–rotted seeds won’t sprout. I turn over the container, wipe it dry with a towel, and on the bottom I add piece of duct tape long enough to write the name of the seeds I’m sowing in that container, I use an industrial strength waterproof marker to write the name. I like a label on the bottom because under the container it can’t be bleached out by the sun. Add some soil to the container filling to about an inch from the rim, moisten with water—I like to sow at my kitchen sink and use the sprayer to gently water the soil in the container. You want the soil to be moist but not muddy, then let any excess moisture drain away. Sprinkle the seeds over the top of the soil, spacing as best suited, and gently rub or push into the moist soil until they are just covered. For the lid, take the paring knife and add a few slits to the top of the container—about once every four or five inches. These slits will vent away heat and let in rain and fresh air. Put the lid on the container, secure it around the sides with duct or strong packing tape and place it outside in safe location where it will stay for the winter until warmer days come and the container germinates.

For whipped topping tubs, use a sharp paring knife and poke three or four drainage slits into  the bottom of the tub, add a label to the bottom of the tub, add soil to about an inch from the top, moisten the soil, then sow the seeds.  Use the knife and poke a small hole in the center of the lid. Then take scissors and entering at that small hole cut out the center of the lid, leaving about an inch inside the rim. Place a piece of clear plastic wrap over the sown tub, snap on the lid which will tightly hold the plastic wrap in place. Take the knife and add a few slits to the plastic wrap for ventilation.

 

With gallon jugs and soda bottles, cut around the middle of the container almost all the way through without severing top from bottom. Add drainage slits, label the bottom, fold back the top, add soil, moisten and sow with seed.  To close the container fold the top back into place and secure with duct or strong packing tape.  Remove and discard the cap. The spout of the bottle vents away sun-heated air and will let in moisture and fresh air. Looking through the spout of the bottle is a great way to check on soil and seedlings after they emerge. You will find it very exciting to peer in and see your first green seedlings. Though I’ve been winter sowing for many years, it still thrills me when I see the first sprouts of the season.

Outside, the seeds are protected in their flats. The lids keep birds and critters out of the soil, in a heavy downpour the lids will soften the brunt of it and the seeds won’t be dislodged and washed away in a deluge. Any seeds that have been loosened often are floated to the sides of the container and will survive to sprout near the edges. Throughout most of the winter the soil is frozen and you don’t have to worry about it drying out, and when weather warms and there is a thaw you can check for soil moisture. Remove a lid and look at the soil—dry soil looks like brownie mix just out of the box and is light in color, and moist soil looks more like prepared brownie mix about to go into the oven.

When my dog was young I couldn’t place a container on the ground in the yard or she would think it was a toy, grab it, shake and destroy it. I had to keep the containers on the picnic table where she couldn’t reach them—they were safe up there. As the years went by the dog didn’t bother the flats anymore and I put them on the ground again but my son and his college friends would come home late at night and stumble over the containers as they made their way through the yard. And, if well hidden under snow, the containers could be mangled by my husband or me when we are digging out from a bad snow storm. I know my own yard best—I have to keep the containers up off the ground. If your yard is safe from dogs, big boots or snow blowers then your containers will be safe on the ground. Otherwise, get them up onto a table where they will safely pass through the season without being disturbed by dogs, critters and people.

Close to the end of winter season you may begin to see the first of the seedlings. Typically, those that sprout early are hardy annuals or perennials that remain semi-evergreen in winter; cold-season veggies sprout early too. Look for alyssum, centaurea, dianthus, malva, pansies, rudbeckia and violas to be among the first flowers and cabbage family, onions, chard and spinach to be some of the earliest sprouting vegetables. Germination in any flat can be staggered as not all seedlings germinate on the same day or even the same week. My picnic table gets nearly full sun during winter and in spring; when the sweet gum above it begins to leaf out, the table gets filtered shade.  The filtered shade, especially at midday when the sun is strong, helps keep direct overhead sunlight from burning new seedlings, and I don’t need to water the flats often.  The more sun that shines on the flats the more soil evaporation you get. When I cannot be home to mind the flats I move all of them into shade and also set up a sprinkler attached to a spigot timer and water the flats during midday, this way I don’t have to worry about them drying out in hot mid-spring sun or making arrangements to have someone reliable come by and water my seedlings.  Sometimes after germination the weather turns bitter and a frost is predicted.  I don’t worry about seedlings of hardy annuals and perennials but tender annuals can be nipped by a frost. I can move the seedlings to an unheated room or the trunk of my car for the time the frost is predicted, or I can drape an old comforter over the flats and remove it the next morning. I do not bring sprouted flats into a warm house—the warmth fosters fast top growth which may not be as cold hardy as the seedlings that sprouted outside in early spring weather.  If you must protect your seedlings give them tough love, no coddling. Sometimes a few seedlings will falter and die, but those that survive grow on to be hardy plants.

Transplanting should be done while seedlings are still small, usually less than an inch tall. I do not thin out flats but instead pry out an inch hunk of soil and seedlings, taking care not to tear roots, and plant this hunk into a prepared bed, spacing the hunks about every six inches or so. I let Ma Nature thin out the weakest seedlings on her own as the little plants grow and fill out. This hunk-o-seedlings method works great with wildflower blends that grow and flower together to create a natural border. Or sow a few packs of annual alyssum into a large flat, and then divide the seedlings into dozens of inch hunks to make an easy and inexpensive edging for your borders. After the seeds begin to sprout I increase the lid vents a bit to help get them used to more fresh air each week. Winter sown seedlings don’t grow very quickly above the soil, but they develop wonderful roots, and do grow quickly once planted in the ground. With the winter sowing method you can grow zillions of climate-ready seedlings—they are tough, have great roots and survive cold spring soil better than purchased transplants.

I usually begin my winter sowing around December 21st and I continue sowing flats throughout winter, only stopping when the weather is so warm at night I no longer need a jacket, and usually by that time I am already transplanting my earliest sprouts. I like to plant out the flats a few weeks after they sprout, getting the seedlings established with light watering and taper off as I begin to see new growth. Seedlings should be fed lightly at transplant and then increase feeding strength as they grow.

Winter Solstice in usually on December 21st and it marks the shortest day of the year.  Solstice sowing is a meaningful ceremony you can participate in by sowing seeds that represent remembrance, life, Mother Nature, and faith.  Seeds of remembrance should be seeds of flowers that remind us of someone we knew and loved but is now gone from our lives forever. Seeds of life should be seeds of plants that make fruit or nectar and invite birds and butterflies to our gardens.  Seeds of trees should be sown to honor Mother Nature. Seeds of Faith can be seeds for plants from a zone that is beyond our own in warmth. It will help us to remember that we accept in our hearts that Ma Nature is capable of miracles. I live in zone seven and will “Solstice Sow” seeds of plants that are hardy to zone eight.

I encourage you to give winter sowing a try. Cautious beginners should try wildflowers and cold-hardy veggies their first season—these are usually easy and successful choices. The method is adaptable. Make containers with what you have on hand, use your favorite sowing medium, sow seeds of plants that thrive in your own region—the cost of producing lots and lots of seedlings from winter sowing is a fraction of buying any plant for your garden.

Trudi Davidoff is the president of WinterSown Educational: wintersown.org. Visit the site for FAQs, seed lists, pictures, and more, and check GardenWeb.com and Facebook for winter sowing groups.

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Woodies, Pots, and Winter: Why and How

by janem on November 13, 2013

MIchelle Sutton

Story and photos by Michelle Sutton

Recently, I visited several small artsy towns seeking to photograph woody plants that are overwintering in pots or elevated planters in front of restaurants, galleries, and yoga studios. I had the impression that many of the successes were happy accidents; someone had a little boxwood or dwarf Alberta spruce, they stuck it in a pot, and the little champ survived the winter outdoors. The most striking example was a catalpa tree (Catalpa speciosa), fifteen feet tall and several inches in caliper, somehow flourishing in a tiny concrete container in a veterinarian’s parking lot.

catalpa in planter

Catalpa
There must be an interesting backstory as to how this catalpa tree came to grow in this container—tree-to-container proportions not recommended …

When they’re set off in some way, such as marking both sides of a passageway, potted trees and shrubs give us a sense of order and rightness. You can do this with a pot of pansies or impatiens, but the effect isn’t quite as soaring.

Besides marking entrances, there are other reasons to use woody plants in pots. There is the sensual pleasure of having woody plants nearby, the focal points they create, the portability, and the deer thwarting. In pots close to your house, deer-vulnerable shrubs like arborvitaes enjoy a safe(r) haven.

You can also festoon potted trees near the house with holiday lights. One client kept three trouble-free junipers (Juniperus chinensis ‘Hetzi Columnaris’) for holiday lights in pots on the porch for five years before transplanting them out into the landscape, where they now make a beautiful buffer between neighbors. In highly urban situations where there is often a sea of concrete, a potted tree or a planter with multiple woodies bring welcome islands of green.

There are functional challenges pots can rise to. One client had a deck beyond which was a hillside of tangled ground cover that neither of us had the hubris to try to clear. Instead, we brought trees and shrubs into her living space on the deck. She wanted to have the feeling of a multi-layered garden (trees, shrubs, perennials, and annuals), but with a clustered collection of pots. We thought the woody plants in the deck garden should return each year for a good many years to justify their expense.

The trees and shrubs we picked for her had to be tough characters, because they might not get watered enough by this busy lady. So they had to be species that are tolerant of dry conditions. The woody specimens also had to be sufficiently cold hardy to overwinter in their pots outdoors. We didn’t want to have to move these heavy pots indoors every fall, nor did we want to be bothered with wrapping things up in ugly burlap. We tried out everything from hydrangeas to elderberries, with a high rate of success. Our first limiting criteria: winter hardiness.

Cold Considerations 

You can see your USDA Hardiness Zone at planthardiness.ars.usda.gov. I live in Zone 6a, which means that the average extreme minimum low in the winter is -10 to -5 F. A woody plant’s stems are just as hardy in a pot as in the ground, but a plant’s root systems are significantly less cold hardy than its above-ground parts. When you plant in pots, or any planter that rises above the ground, the roots are exposed to colder ambient temps. In the earth, roots enjoy the temperature moderation provided by soil.

A rough guideline is that your plant selections for pots or elevated planters need to be hardy to at least two zones colder than your USDA zone. So in my case (zone 6a), in general, I’d want to use woody plants that are hardy to at least Zone 4a for any pots that I want to overwinter outdoors.

Here are some evergreen and deciduous woodies that have worked well for me in overwintered pots. They are all hardy to at least Zone 4a. It’s helpful to buy trees that have been propagated and grown in your region, by the way, because their local provenance ensures that they are adapted to your winters.

 

Evergreen

boxwood in planter

Boxwood
Boxwood for containers can be risky in terms of winter hardiness, but you might give it a go if you have a protected spot and a notably hardy variety.

Boxwood (like Buxus ‘Wintergreen’, which some sources cite as hardy to zone 4, others to zone 5 only), arborvitae (like Thuja occidentalis ‘Little Giant’), junipers (Juniperus sp.), and spruces (Picea sp).

Juniper in pot

Juniper
Junipers are among the hardiest of the evergreens and coveted for their drought tolerance as well.

Deciduous 

Dwarf rugosa roses (Rosa rugosa)

Elms (dwarf) (Ulmus sp.)

Baldcypress (dwarf) (like Taxodium distichum ‘Peve Minaret’)

Elderberry (like Sambucus ‘Black Lace’)

Ninebarks (like Physocarpus ‘Summer Wine’)

Black locust (like Robinia ‘Twisty Baby’ with awesome contorted branches)

Hydrangea paniculata (like ‘Limelight’)

Lilacs (not all, but many—check the label for hardiness zone)

Upright buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula ‘Fine Line’)

 

Here are some woodies I’m looking forward to trying in overwintered pots:

‘Northlight’ dwarf dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides)

‘Robusta Green’ juniper

Dwarf ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba ‘Troll’)

Purple beautyberry (Callicarpa dichotoma) (hardy to 5a)

Knockout roses (zone 5)

‘Golden Spirit’ smokebush (Cotinus coggygria)

You may have areas around your home that are microclimates where you can get away with using potted plants a half or whole zone less hardy—in my case, plants with hardiness only to Zone 5a or 5b. Like all facets of horticulture, testing winter hardiness limits can be regarded as an experiment and an adventure!

Mixed Media 

Cornell Urban Horticulture Professor Nina Bassuk says we should choose soil-less potting mix over “topsoil” or field soil of any kind. (She points out that simply calling something “topsoil” is a meaningless designation, by the way—anyone can call their product that, even if it’s junk.) Soil-less media like those using peat or coir (ground coconut hulls) are highly porous and designed to allow water to drain freely out of pots, while field soil in containers perches—i.e., hangs on to water too tightly.

A good mix will feel light and friable in the bag. Don’t be surprised that it’s actually a bit hydro-phobic at first: it takes a certain amount of water saturation to penetrate all that pore space. Once your trees and shrubs are potted up, water them deeply once or twice a week during the growing season. Less frequent but deeper watering is more effective than frequent shallow watering. Smaller pots will need to be watered more often than larger ones.

Bassuk says that the pots should be watered well before going into the winter. For one thing, well-hydrated woody plants are less prone to desiccation by winter winds. At the beginning of winter, she recommends moving the pots as close to the house as possible and ganging them together so the sides are touching. “The warmth of each pot insulates its neighbor,” she says.  “You could also stack straw bales around them to further insulate them.”

The best containers for overwintering are salt-glazed pottery and plastic. Ceramic, lightweight foam, and terra cotta pots are the most likely to crack under the freeze-and-thaw pressure of our winters.

Time to Move Out

If a tree or shrub is well cared for in its container, it may outgrow its space. This will take a long time in the case of dwarf woodies. (By the way, “dwarf” means grows very slowly, but doesn’t necessarily stay small—for plants that stay little, see the “miniatures.”) You can prune the stems of shrubs and multi-stem trees to keep top growth in check, but this is not advisable for trees with one central leader.

For smaller potted plants whose roots have fully colonized the pot and clearly want to break out, you can transplant them into larger pots. More brutally, you can prune an outer rung of roots and then replant in the same pot, but this kind of root reduction is stressful on the plant.

For vigorously growing woodies, I transplant into successively larger pots and then at some point make the decision to move them into the landscape. Often this is after many years of service as a containerized woody element of a mobile, elevated, and elegant pot garden.

'Summer Wine' ninebark

Summer Wine ninebark
Ninebarks (like ‘Summer Wine’, hardy to zone 3) can make good shrubs for containers and planters.

 

pine tree in planterPine tree
Just as in the larger landscape, a containerized pine can be expected to shed some needles in the fall.

 

 

dwarf alberta spruce

Dwarf Alberta spruce
While dwarf Alberta spruces have some liabilities, they are very hardy for containers.

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Ear to the Ground November-December 2013

by janem on November 13, 2013

newJanepicii

Rich Finzer’s article on invasive woody species in the last issue caused quite a stir. One reader questioned whether Mr. Finzer was really talking about Russian olive, Elaeagnus angustifolia, or if he meant autumn olive, E. umbellata. Below, another reader disagrees with two native plants being lumped in with invasive aliens. Keep those letters coming. We love them!

—Jane

Dear Ms. Milliman,

I have just read the article “Invasive Species” in the September-October 2013 issue. Clearly it was written by someone who manages his land with some environmentally unsound practices, as noted by the interjected editorial comments. One can only imagine how much compaction of the soil and carbon emissions Mr. Finzer has contributed with his pickup truck. He does have some valid points about the invasiveness of alien species and how they have filled the niches of native plants that provide habitat for wildlife. However, while he initially seems to promote biodiversity, he does not discuss replacing these alien species with competitive native plants.

I am bewildered that on his eighty-acre farm, he cannot tolerate the native staghorn sumac, an attractive succession shrub or tree, that provides nourishment for many birds in the dead of winter when few other food sources are available. According to [native plants expert] William Cullina, sumacs are the larval host food of the red-banded hairstreak butterfly. I could not find any references online or in books that state that rabbits consume the fruit and are the primary dispersers of the seeds. Sumacs retain their fuzzy, red fruit throughout winter at the tips of their branches, making them accessible only to birds and climbing mammals. Rabbits mainly gnaw on the bark and nibble off young shoots, so they may actually help curb the spread of sumacs. Mr. Finzer describes the wild grape as a “bane of landowners everywhere” and I do not agree. It too, is a native that is a natural source of food for wildlife and can be controlled without the need for complete eradication. Without the hardy, robust rootstocks of Vitis riparia and other native grapes, viniculture might not be possible in North America.

In my opinion, these two native species should not be lumped into the same category as Japanese honeysuckle, Russian olive, multiflora rose, and giant hogweed. It appears that Mr. Finzer has based his article largely on personal experiences and less on scientific research. I hope that in the future, your publication will improve its refereeing and the content of the information presented to the public.

Sincerely,

Judy Bigelow, M.S., D.V.M., Master Gardener CCE Monroe County

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Q&A: We ask …YOU answer?

by janem on November 1, 2013

This issue, we’ve decided to turn the tables and ask you the question. Can you name this plant? The first reader to guess correctly will win a lilac from Lilac Hill Nursery. Comment below or on Facebook or submit answers to jane AT janemilliman.com.

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