to do

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Almanac:

WHAT TO DO IN THE GARDEN IN SEPTEMBER AND OCTOBER

Garden Maintenance:

Continue to remove weeds to prevent the perennials from having a head start in the spring and the annuals from shedding seeds into the soil. If you don’t have time to weed at least cut off and discard the seed heads.

Watering trees and shrubs is as important as watering your perennials, especially anything planted this season.

Mulch newly planted perennials, trees and shrubs to prevent heaving in the winter. Make sure the mulch is not touching plant and shrub stems or tree trunks. Pile leaves on your macrophylla hydrangeas.

Add compost to your beds now.

Allow annuals such as nicotiana, annual poppies, cleome, and verbena bonariensis to drop seeds in the garden.

Prevent mouse and rabbit damage to thin-barked trees and shrubs by installing 18 inch to 24 inch high hardware cloth. Cut any grass around the base of trees short to discourage nesting by these critters.

Perennials:

Remove and discard all diseased plant material. Do not place in compost pile as some fungal spores can winter over in ground litter and soil and will re-infect plants next season.

Disinfect your pruner after working on diseased plants before moving to a new plant. A quick spray with Lysol or a dip in a 10% Clorox solution works well.

Remove and destroy iris foliage to eliminate the eggs of the iris borer.

Mound soil around your roses when the temperature drops. Bring in fresh soil to avoid disturbing roots.

You can leave the seed heads of astilbe, black-eyed-Susan, coneflower, daisy etc. intact to provide food for the birds as well as giving winter interest.

Don’t cut back grasses and plants such as red osier dogwood. They provide winter interest.

Divide any perennials that have become overgrown, diminished bloom or have formed a “doughnut” shape with a bare spot in the center of the clump. It’s best to transplant early in the fall while there is still enough time for their roots to settle in for the winter.

Bulbs:

Begin planting spring bulbs. You will get better results if you plant when there is a month of 40 degree or above soil temperature (mid Sept. – mid Oct. in our area). This allows the bulbs to set strong roots and will give you better blooming.

Fertilize bulbs when you plant them using compost or 5-10-10. Cover the planting area with 2-3 inches of compost.

With some bulbs it’s difficult to tell the top from the bottom. The skin is loose at the top and attached at the bottom. If you can’t tell, plant them sideways.

To deter moles, voles and squirrels, put a layer of pea gravel or small gauge chicken wire between the bulbs and soil surface.

Plant bulbs 2 to 3 times as deep as their height, a little deeper for naturalizing varieties.

Lawn:

Over seed bare spots in the lawn. Filling in bare spots helps prevent weeds in those areas next year.

September is the best time to fertilize your lawn and seed a new one. A top dressing of good compost is an ideal natural fertilizer.

Remember to water the grass seeds regularly to keep the soil moist and choose high quality seed appropriate for your site.

In early September check your lawn for grubs by lifting up about a square foot of sod. If there are more than 10-12 grubs per square foot you may want to treat for grubs. First identify what type of grub you have so you know the proper treatment. Complete your grub control program by the middle of September. Contact your Cooperative Extension for help in identification and treatment options.

Keep mowing the lawn. Make the last cutting one inchone-inch lower than usual to prevent matting and to discourage snow mold.

If the leaves aren’t too thick on your lawn leave them there when you mow, it feeds your lawn naturally.

Vegetables & Herbs:

Any time after the first frost through late October is a good time to plant garlic.

Pot up some parsley, chives, oregano, or mints to use indoors. You can also freeze or dry herbs for winter use. Be sure to wash off the plants.

Pick off the tomato blossoms that won’t have time to develop tomatoes so the nutrients go into the tomatoes already growing on the vine.

Plant cover crops such as peas or clover as you harvest your vegetables. This will reduce the need for weeding and will add nitrogen to the soil.

Another option is to sow a cover crop such as rye or winter wheat in the vegetable garden. Turn it over in the spring.

Dig mature onions on a dry day. Store in well ventilated mesh bags (or even panty hose).

Plant radish, kale, spinach, and lettuce seeds in early September as your last crops.

Pull up your hot pepper plants and hang them until the peppers are dry. (Or thread them on a string to dry.)

If you had any vegetables with fungal problems make sure that area is cleaned of all plant debris and avoid planting the same variety in the same spot next year.

Mulch your asparagus and strawberries.

Miscellaneous:

Dig and store summer blooming bulbs, caladium and elephant’s ears before frost and tuberous begonias, cannas, dahlias after the foliage is blackened by frost.

Bring in tender perennials such as scented geraniums and rosemary and any annuals you want to overwinter BEFORE you have to turn on the furnace. This cuts down on the shock of moving inside.

To start annuals for next season, take cuttings from plants such as scented geraniums, begonias, strobilanthus, and coleus.

Collect seeds from open pollinated plants such as Kiss-me-Over-the Garden Gate, Big Max Pumpkin, and Brandywine tomatoes.

If collecting seeds be sure to keep them dry and chilled 35 to 45 degrees Fahrenheit.

Join a seed exchange such as Seed Savers. Contribute extra seeds to organizations such as the American Horticulture Society and the Herb Society of America.

Plant trees and shrubs now. They will have time to develop roots before winter sets in.

Fallen leaves are one of the most wasted natural resources the home gardener has. They can be used as a mulch to improve soil texture and to add nutrients. (Get some from your neighbors as well!)

Small leaves like linden or birch trees can be spread on gardens directly. Larger leaves can be shredded or run over with your lawn mower before spreading. Avoid using black walnut or butternut, as they can be toxic to many plants. Excess leaves can be composted for use next spring. They decompose faster if shredded first.

Begin bringing in houseplants that lived outdoors all summer. Wash off with a good spray of soapy water. Check for diseases and insects before bringing inside.

Take pictures of your gardens. Make notes for next year’s gardens now. What worked, what didn’t, what to add, remove, or move.

Begin to get poinsettias ready for December flowering. They need fourteen hours of total uninterrupted darkness and ten hours of bright light. Let your amaryllis bulbs begin a 2 month rest period.

Lay out thick layers of cardboard or newspaper over areas that will become new beds in the spring. These will kill grasses and/or weeds as they break down making spring efforts easier.

Take notes on what worked or didn’t.  (You think you will remember next year but you probably won’t.)

—Carol Ann Harlos & Lyn Chimera, Master Gardeners, Erie County Cornell Cooperative Extension

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JULY

In the food garden:

Cut off those curly garlic scapes and use them for garlic pesto or stir-fries. Doing so will encourage larger garlic bulbs.

Protect your berries from the birds with bird netting. If some berries look moist or misshapen, check them for the maggots of the Spotted Wing Drosophila, a new fruit fly pest. Remove decaying fruit to help minimize your fruit fly populations. Also look out for another new pest, the marmorated stinkbug.

Keep your food plants weeded, watered, and mulched. Blueberry bushes are particularly sensitive to drought. A five-gallon bucket with tiny holes in the bottom, next to each bush, provides an easy way to water and measure how much water you’re applying (10 gallons each is good in drought situations, once or twice a week).

Keep tomato branches inside cages, and guide melon and squash vines.

This is the last month to plant these veggies for a fall crop if you are in zone 5: snap beans, peas, cukes, carrots, kohlrabi, summer squash, early sweet corn and green onions, among others. Zone 6 gardeners get a couple more weeks of growing season.

Time to renew or move the strawberry bed. Moving the plants allows a thorough weed removal, and then there’s still time to plant a succession crop (see above).

Keep the asparagus bed weeded.

To maximize basil harvest and prevent blooming, cut plants back by one-third, rather than just plucking leaves. This can probably be done 3 times, thus avoiding having to start new plants from seed. If you grow basil in containers, you can overwinter a few plants on a warm sunny windowsill (ditto for parsley, which can take your cooler windowsill).

Handpick conspicuous pests such as Japanese beetles, Colorado potato beetles, and so on. Look for the eggs of insect pests on the undersides of leaves. Use Bt on cabbage family plants, but judiciously. Remember it will also kill the caterpillars of desirable butterflies; instead, grow extra parsley, dill, or fennel, to have more black swallowtails. Leave common milkweed in rough areas for the monarch caterpillars.

Don’t panic if you have few apples or crabapples this year. Last year’s apple crop (2013) was enormous due to the hard frosts in the spring of 2012, that killed the flowers. Last year, the trees put most of their energy into fruit, rather than forming the flower buds for spring 2014. If weather permits in the spring of 2015, we should have another very large fruit set. Thinning the fruit next year may reduce the tendency to biennial bearing that might result.

Black knot is a fungus disease that affects some plums and cherries. Refer to the factsheet for control, but if you haven’t planted plums yet, seriously consider the hybrid plums that appear to be resistant. Most of these are the product of plant breeding in the upper Midwest, so they are hardy to zones 3 or 4.

Ornamentals:

It’s finally OK to remove narcissus foliage that seems to hang on forever – but removing it prematurely really does have a negative effect on flowering. This is also a good time to move the bulbs, or you can dig them up and dry them off, for planting in September.

Early July is a good time to move Colchicums. The dormant foliage should still allow you to find them. Try growing plumbago, Ceratostigma plumbaginoides, as a fall-flowering groundcover with the Colchicum. The foliage will help support the Colchicum flowers and keep them out of the mud.

A good rainy day chore is sorting the seed packets. Also, if you forced bulbs this past winter, you can take them out of the pots and store them dry and cool for the summer (except for delicate ones like snowdrops).

Leggy annuals may need to be pruned back to encourage new growth and more flowering. Some annuals don’t take hot weather and may need to be replaced.

Continue to go on garden tours at private gardens and arboreta. Be sure to take your camera and notebook, because you are sure to get ideas for your own garden.

Invest in a rain gauge and keep track of your rain. This is not only helpful, but fun as well.

Watch your viburnums for viburnum leaf beetle adults, especially if the larvae defoliated them. Consider a pesticide treatment to save the shrubs. Do NOT cut back branches just because the leaves have been eaten or damaged. Scratch the bark with your fingernail. If it’s green underneath, the branch is alive. Dormant buds under the bark just need time to develop into sprouts and leaves. If the leaf defoliation isn’t too bad, an organic control method is to snip off the twigs that contain the VLB eggs. Although the egg-laying sites are most obvious in the fall, one actually has until April to trim the affected twigs. See the VLB factsheet for details.

This is the last month to fertilize woodies, without encouraging tender late growth that may not harden off in time for winter. It’s also the last month to prune woodies, for the same reason – except for dead or diseased wood, which can be pruned any time.

Mark colors of phlox or daylilies in case you want to propagate them for friends or Plant Sales.

Deadhead some perennials, either for continued bloom, or for improved foliage.   For more details, consult the excellent book by Tracy DiSabato-Aust: “The Well-Tended Perennial Garden.”

Bearded irises can be divided and replanted now. It’s best to get this done by Labor Day, to allow sufficient time for rerooting. If you want to order more, do so right away. Late-planted bearded irises may heave out of the ground and die in the winter, but if they have enough time to root, they are very winter-hardy. A tip from the Southern Tier Iris Society: put a brick on late-planted rhizomes to prevent heaving.

Spring-planted woodies need to be watered every week unless there is an inch of rain. Ten to 15 gallons per plant is recommended. If you haven’t protected them from deer yet, start planning how to do it.

AUGUST

In the food garden:

This is the last month to plant these veggies if you are in zone 5: early broccoli or cauliflower transplants, leaf lettuce, spinach, and turnip.

The easiest way to expand the veggie garden is to sheet compost now with flattened cardboard boxes. Overlap the edges and then cover them up with whatever you have – grass clippings, woodchips, spoiled hay, or bags of leaves. By spring, most of the weeds will be dead. This is also a good way to prepare the ground for shrub borders, berry plantings, or flowerbeds. You can also use thick newspapers, but they take longer to apply.

Harvest garlic when the leaves are yellowing. Next you can weed the area and plant a late crop (see above). It’s best to rotate where you grow garlic, so pick a new spot with lots of sun and good drainage. Maybe, sheet compost the new spot now (see above), until planting time in mid-October.

Keep up the weeding, watering, and mulching, as needed. Try not to get leaves wet as that might spread disease. Keep a close watch for tomato/potato late blight.

Keep harvesting beans, basil, okra, cukes, summer squash, eggplant, etc., in order for plants to keep producing. It’s OK to leave some peppers on the plant to ripen and turn color.

Fall-bearing raspberries should start producing by mid or late August. If you have the variety ‘Heritage’ and have had problems with early fall frosts destroying part of the crop, plant an earlier-bearing variety. ‘Polana’ has proven successful.

Enjoy blueberries until Labor Day if you have planted the late-bearing variety ‘Elliott.’ Maybe you have room to add it next spring!

Ornamentals:

Nursery stock goes on sale and may be a bargain if it has been well cared for. Be sure to water weekly after planting if rain is insufficient. Keep the watering up until the ground freezes, unless rain is adequate.

The second half of August is a good time to start to move and/or divide some of the hardier perennials. Try to be all done by the end of September.

Order bulbs now for fall planting, to get the best selection of varieties. Lots of spring-blooming bulbs are deer-resistant. Avoid tulips and crocus, and enjoy carefree alliums, winter aconite, snowdrops, snowflake, Siberian squill, glory-of-the-snow, Puschkinia, Fritillaria, and Anemone blanda. Grape hyacinths send up fall foliage, but even when it’s browsed, it doesn’t seem to affect their vigor.

Repot your houseplants to get them established before they need to be brought back inside.

Keep the lawn mowed at a 3-inch height for the strongest root development and drought resistance. But if a drought drags on, allow the lawn to go dormant. It will revive on its own when rains resume.

Late August and early September is the best time to renovate the lawn or to seed a new one.

This is the time to start protecting tree trunks from ‘buck rub’ damage.

—Pat Curran and the Tompkins County Master Gardeners

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Garden Maintenance:

Continue to remove weeds to prevent perennial ones from having a head start in the spring and to prevent annual ones from shedding seeds into the soil. If you don’t have time to weed, at least cut off and discard the seed heads.

Water trees and shrubs. This is as important as watering your perennials and extremely important for anything planted this season.

Mulch newly planted perennials, trees and shrubs to prevent heaving in the winter. Make sure the mulch is not touching plant and shrub stems or tree trunks.

Add compost to your beds..

Prevent mouse and rabbit damage to thin-barked trees and shrubs by installing 18 to 24 inch high hardware cloth.  Remove any grass around the base of trees short to discourage nesting by these critters.

Perennials:

Move, divide, and/or share your perennials so you will have one less thing to do next spring.

Remove and discard all diseased plant material.  Do not place in your compost pile as some fungal spores can winter over and re-infect plants next season.

Disinfect your pruner after working on diseased plants before moving to a new plant. A quick wipe with rubbing alcohol or a dip in a 10% bleach solution works well.

Remove and destroy iris foliage to eliminate the eggs of the iris borer.

Mound soil around your roses when the temperature drops.  Bring in fresh soil to avoid disturbing roots.

You can leave the seed heads of plants such as astilbe, black-eyed-Susan, and coneflower intact to provide food for the birds and winter interest.

Don’t cut back grasses and plants such as red osier dogwood. These can also provide winter interest.

Divide any perennials that have become overgrown, have diminished bloom or formed a “doughnut” shape with a bare spot in the center of the clump. It’s best to transplant early in the fall while there is still enough time for their roots to settle in for the winter.

Bulbs:

Begin planting spring bulbs. You will get the best results if you plant mid-September to mid-October. This allows the bulbs to set strong roots.  But if you miss that planting window don’t be afraid to plant them later, as long as the ground isn’t frozen solid.

Fertilize bulbs when you plant them using compost or 5-10-10. Cover the planting area with 2-3 inches of compost.

With some bulbs it’s difficult to tell the top from the bottom. The skin is loose at the top and attached at the bottom. If you can’t tell, plant them sideways!

To deter moles, voles and squirrels, put a layer of pea gravel or small gauge chicken wire between the bulbs and soil surface.

Plant bulbs 2 to 3 times as deep as their height, a little deeper for naturalizing varieties.

Lawn:

Over-seed bare spots in the lawn. Filling in bare spots helps prevent weeds in those areas next year.

September is the best time to fertilize your lawn and seed a new one. A top-dressing of good compost is an ideal and natural fertilizer.

Remember choose high quality seed appropriate for your site and to water regularly to keep the soil moist.

In early September check your lawn for grubs by lifting up about a square foot of sod. If there are more than 10-12 grubs per square foot you may want to treat the lawn. First identify what type of grub you have so you know the proper treatment. Complete your grub control program by the middle of September. Contact your Cooperative Extension for help in identification and treatment options.

Keep mowing the lawn as needed though late fall.  Make the last cutting one inch lower than usual to prevent matting and to discourage snow mold.

If the leaves aren’t too thick on your lawn leave them there when you mow; it feeds your lawn naturally.

Vegetables & Herbs:

Any time after the first frost through late October is a good time to plant garlic.

Pick off tomato blossoms that won’t have time to develop so the nutrients go into the tomatoes already growing on the vine.

Plant cover crops such as peas or clover as you harvest your vegetables.  This will reduce the need for weeding and will add nitrogen to the soil. Another option is to sow a cover crop such as rye or winter wheat in the vegetable garden. Turn it over in the spring.

Wait until the seeds of your sunflowers are firm and done growing.  Cut off the sunflower head leaving about one foot of stem.  Hang in an airy dry place until ripening is complete.

Dig mature onions on a dry day. Store in well ventilated mesh bags (or even panty hose).

Plant radish, kale, spinach, and lettuce seeds in early September as your last crops.

Pull up your hot pepper plants and hang them until the peppers are dry. (Or thread the peppers on a string to dry.)

Allow nuts to fully mature on the trees. Remove the outer green hull of butternuts and walnuts.

Try potting up some of your garden herbs and bring them in the house for fresh herbs during the winter.

If you had any vegetables with fungal problems make sure that area is cleaned of all plant debris. Avoid planting the same variety in the same spot next year.

Miscellaneous:

Dig and store summer blooming bulbs, caladium and elephant’s ears before frost and tuberous begonias, cannas, dahlias after the foliage is blackened by frost.

Bring in tender perennials such as scented geraniums and rosemary and any annuals you want to overwinter BEFORE you have to turn on the furnace. This cuts down on the shock of moving inside.

Make cuttings of plants treated as annuals such as scented geraniums, strobilanthus, impatiens, and coleus.

Collect seeds from open pollinated plants such as kiss-me-over-the-garden-gate, Big Max Pumpkin, and Brandywine tomatoes. Be sure to keep them dry and chilled at 35-45 degrees Fahrenheit.

Join a seed exchange such as Seed Savers. Contribute extra seeds to organizations such as the American Horticulture Society and the Herb Society of America.

Add color to the autumn garden by planting mums, kale, flowering cabbage, and pansies.

Plant trees and shrubs now. They will have time to develop roots before winter sets in.

Fallen leaves are one of the most wasted natural resources the home gardener has. They can be used as a mulch to improve soil texture and to add nutrients. (Get some from your neighbors as well!)

Small leaves like linden or birch trees can be spread on gardens directly. Larger leaves can be shredded or run over with your lawn mower before spreading. Avoid using black walnut or butternut, as they can be toxic to many plants. Excess leaves can be composted for use next spring. They decompose faster if shredded first

Begin bringing in houseplants that lived outdoors all summer.  Wash off with a good spray of soapy water.  Check for diseases and insects before bringing inside.

Take pictures of your gardens.  Make notes for next year’s gardens now. What worked, what didn’t, what to add, remove, or move.

Begin to get Poinsettias ready for December flowering. They need fourteen hours of total uninterrupted darkness and ten hours of bright light.

Lay out thick layers of cardboard or newspaper over areas that will become new beds in the spring. These will kill grasses and/or weeds as they break down making spring efforts easier.

—Carol Ann Harlos & Lyn Chimera, Erie County Master Gardeners

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Almanac: What to do in the Garden

by janem on February 28, 2013

What to do in the Garden in March and April

The following are some general ideas for early spring gardening. Keep in mind you have to take the weather conditions into account. Wait until the soil is above 50 degrees to try any planting.

Winter damage:

Clean up and remove leaves and winter debris, which are loaded with phosphorus, from paved surfaces and drainage sewer openings. This helps preserve drainage water quality and reduce algae buildup in our waterways.

The salt residue in soils near a road, sidewalk, or driveway that has been covered with salt laden snow can be diluted by thoroughly soaking the area a few times with a hose. This is only necessary if we don’t have heavy rains.

Snow, wind and ice can cause damage to trees and shrubs. Prune out any damaged branches.

Plants that have “heaved” from the freezing and thawing action of the soil should be replanted as soon as the soil is workable. A layer of leaves will help protect the exposed root mass if the soil is still frozen.

Pruning:

Early spring is the time for pruning many shrubs. The exceptions to this are ones that bloom in the spring like forsythia and lilac. These should be pruned after flowering.

Prune trees with the exception of maple and birch, which bleed. They should be pruned only after their leaves have fully emerged. Never “top” a tree. This produces a weak tree with an unnatural shape.

Fruit trees should be pruned in early spring before bud break. Pay particular attention to any twigs or branches with cankers or black knot (dark swollen galls). These should be removed and discarded before bud break.

Prune brambles (raspberries and blackberries) during March to remove any dead, diseased, or damaged branches and to increase air circulation.

When pruning, be careful not to cut flush to the trunk. Cut outside the branch collar (swelling in bark around the area where the branch meets the tree). For more information on proper pruning techniques contact your local CCE or check out their web information at cce.cornell.edu

Wound dressing or paint is no longer recommended. If properly pruned the wound is best left to heal naturally.

Cut back and prune roses when forsythia blooms. Cut back dead or crossing canes to about one quarter of an inch above an outward facing bud.

Cut pussy willows back drastically after they bloom to keep the plants strong. They will have more blooms next year and will be stronger plants.

Cut back lavender into green wood late in April.

Complete any pruning of other shrubs before new growth starts.

Perennials:

Cut back grasses and other perennials that have been left up for winter interest. Ideally this should be done before the new growth gets more than a few inches high so you don’t damage the new growth while cutting back the old.

Any plant material that has not harbored disease can be put in the compost pile.

Sow coriander, orach, baby’s breath, poppy, phlox, and cornflower seeds directly into garden beds.

Once the threat of snow has passed, remove winter debris or any leftover mulch from around areas where spring bulbs are planted.

Pull emerging weeds by hand so as not to disturb emerging perennials and bulbs. This also prevents new weeds from growing from disturbed soil.

Wait until the soil is “workable’ to divide perennials. This means it should be above 50 degrees and dry enough not to stay in a clump when squeezed in your hand.

Hostas, liriope, daylilies, dicentra, coral bells and shasta daisies are some perennials that can be divided before new growth starts in spring.

Scatter annual poppy seeds in the garden for bloom in June and early July.

Vegetables:

Take the time to plan your vegetable garden taking care to use rotation. Do not plant members of the same plant family (tomatoes and peppers for example) in the same spot as last year.

Indoors, sow tomatoes, eggplant, and peppers. Be sure they will get adequate light.

Direct seed cool season vegetables and flowers when soil is suitable.

Check your seed packages to see whether you should start seeds indoors or direct sow them outside. Also check information on the envelopes for the appropriate number of weeks prior to planting outside.

Houseplants:

Houseplants come to life with the increase in hours of sunlight. This is a good time to resume feeding. Natural fertilizers are preferable to synthetic ones.

Check your houseplants for disease and insects and the roots to see if they need dividing and/or repotting. Once the outdoor gardening season begins you will have less time for them!

Give houseplants a good “shower” in the sink or tub to clean off dust buildup from the winter months. For plants too large to move, give the leaves a sponge bath.

Prune off any dead or yellowing leaves and branches.

Any plants that have outgrown their pots can be repotted. If you want the plant to continue increasing in size just repot it in a larger container. If you want to keep the plant in the same size container the roots can be trimmed back.

General:

Apply horticultural oil to trees and shrubs that have had past problems with piercing and sucking insects such as mites, aphids, scale, whitefly and adelgids. Carefully follow the application directions for temperature and weather conditions. If applied at the wrong time they are not effective. Follow product label instructions closely.

If you didn’t clean, sharpen and check garden tools in autumn do it now. It makes a huge difference in how well they work and how long they last.

If your tiller doesn’t start easily in the spring move it out in the sun for an hour or so. This solar heating will warm up the fluids and make starting much easier. It works for lawn mowers too!

Plant bare-root shrubs and roses while they are still dormant, about 4 weeks before the last expected frost.

Place new birdhouses outdoors and/or clean out older ones.

Take the time to enjoy forced branches indoors. Examples are forsythias, weigelia, and pussywillows.

Don’t turn over your beds until the soil is workable. (Falls apart when you squeeze a handful in your hand).

Mulch can change soil temperature. Consider using black plastic to warm the soil for heat- loving vegetable plants like peppers.

Check stored tubers and bulbs. Discard those that are diseased or decayed.

Scrub and sterilize reusable pots and seed starter trays by washing them in a dilute mixture of warm water and bleach.

Set up a notebook so you can learn from this seasons successes and disappointments.

Plant a tree on Friday April 29 to celebrate National Arbor Day.

If you have not planted herbs previously include them in your garden plan.

Turn your compost pile.

In April remove evergreen boughs from the crowns of your perennials.

Fertilize your spring bulbs when the leaves first appear.

—Carol Ann Harlos & Lyn Chimera, Master Gardeners, Erie County

 

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